Levels of quality management. The integrated discipline of all elements. The transformation or evolution of quality is a subject that has evolved over time under the influence of various Gurus on the subject when the need arises to offer products highlighting their attributes against those of the competition with the aim of increasing sales, process.
Taking in consideration later than the industrial revolution, the evolution of quality can be divided into four levels/stages.
First Level: Quality by Inspection.
The inspection function consisted of closely and critically examining the work to check its quality and detect errors. In this 1922 stage, Radford's book, Quality control in the factory, was published. For the first time, quality is seen as a management responsibility.
Second Level: Statistical quality control (Product control / Inspection).
The key in this stage is related to the results of Shewhart's research at the Bell Company, which culminated in the publication of the book Economics of control in manufactured products, in which it is define the techniques to evaluate production, control in factories and propose different ways to improve quality. Simple statistical techniques were developed to determine the limits of variation and control charts to present the results that allowed distinguishing the problems inherent in the production process.
In 1946, the American Association for Quality Control (ASQC) was created. At the end of the 1940s, quality was raised to an academic discipline.
Third Level: Quality assurance (Process control).
Arises when it is accepted that statistical control has implications beyond the production department and is extended to the administration of the company. In the 1950s, new elements emerged that gave a twist to quality control: quality costs, total quality control, reliability engineering and zero defects. In 1951, Joseph Juran published the Quality Control Manual, in which he proposed the study of quality costs and the savings that could be generated if it was acted properly.
Armand Feigenbaum was the first to propose the concept of Total Quality Control (TQC). This researcher said that quality products could not be produced if the production department worked in isolation.
Fourth Level: Quality as a competitive strategy (Total Quality Management).
in this stage the methods of the previous stage are still used, important changes occur, since quality becomes of interest to senior management, it is related to profitability, it is defined from the customer's point of view and it is included in the strategic planning process and continuous improvement processes are defined. It becomes a key factor in the competitiveness of companies.
Dr. Feigenbaum's legacy would be honed by Juran, Deming, and Ishikawa and universally recognized as Total Quality Management (TQM).
Due to the innovative contributions of Dr. Feigenbaum, the issue of quality costs according to its origin began to be seriously addressed. Total Quality Control (TQC) is a concept that allows an organization to be seen as an interrelated system, where quality ceases to be a subject of the productive areas to become a subject of all areas. Everyone is involved in it, and directly influences factors that make up customer satisfaction.